Visit Our Blog

Retina & Vitreous Disorders

What is the Retina?

The retina is the innermost nerve layer that lines the back of the eye. Many ophthalmologists compare this to the film of a camera. The retina is responsible for processing the images projected onto it and then the optic nerve transmits this to the brain. The retina is susceptible to many types of diseases that we will detail in the web pages of this section.

What is a retina specialist?

A retina specialist is a medical doctor trained as an ophthalmologist, who has received additional fellowship training in diseases and surgery of the vitreous and retina. As mentioned previously, the retina is a very sensitive part of the eye that requires special attention when in danger. Damage to your retina can cause blindness. Much of the treatment work done by our retina specialists involves: macular degeneration, diabetic eye disease, retinal detachments, uveitis, and flashes or floaters. Our highly skilled Georgia retina eye doctors hope you find this information useful when choosing an appropriate retina eye doctor.

What are the common problems associated with the retina?

Who are the Thomas Eye Group retina doctors?

What do I do if I have been told I have issues with the retina?

The retina is one of the most sensitive parts of the eye. If you have been told that you have retina eye problems or have been told that you have macular degeneration, macular edema, diabetic eye disease, or a retinal detachment you will want to seek the immediate attention of an Atlanta area retina specialist. The retina doctors at the Thomas Eye Group are trained specifically to diagnose and treat problems involving the retina.

The importance of the optic nerve and its relationship to the retina:

The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain and has often been described as a cable. The optic nerve is a continuation of the axons of the ganglion cells in the retina that continue onto the brain.

Retinal Detachment

A retinal detachment is a very serious problem that almost always causes blindness unless it is treated. As a person’s normal eye ages the vitreous gel contracts and then becomes more liquid. As the vitreous gel becomes more liquid it may pull on the retina and create a retinal tear (and then tear.) When fluid passes through a tear, it will lift the retina from the back of the eye creating (making) a retinal detachment.

Retinal Detachment Risk Factors:

  • Extreme Nearsightedness (myopia)
  • Family history of retinal detachments
  • Age
  • Previous injury to the eye

Warning Signs of a Retinal Detachments:

Retinal DetachmentIf your eye doctor has been concerned about the health of your retina getting proper patient education on this topic is crucial. You may be able to prevent blindness or serious problems if you have regular eye examinations. Warning signs of retinal detachments will include seeing flashing lights or floaters and even seeing patches of gray move across the spectrum of your vision. If the retina completely detaches from the back of the eye, your vision will become drastically worse. You may experience a dark cloud or curtain come over your vision. If you are experiencing blurriness in the center of your vision you should seek the help of one our retina specialists for immediate treatment.

Repairing retinal detachments:

Because the retina is in the back of the eye and is not visible from the outside, special camera equipment is required for diagnosing a retinal detachment. The retina doctors at Thomas Eye Group will use a light magnification instrument to view the inside of the eye. When you have been diagnosed with a retinal detachment your doctor will suggest a particular treatment option. Listed below are a few treatment options that you can review. Please note that the expert retina surgeons at Thomas Eye Group have the experience and training to properly treat and diagnose retina detachments. After your eye health examination your doctor will discuss possible treatment options.

Laser Treatment for Retinal Detachment

Laser Photocoagulation

This laser treatment involves your retina surgeon directing the laser through a contact lens or ophthalmoscope that burns the area around the retinal tear. The burning results in a scar that welds the retina to the back tissue of the eye.


During the cryotherapy procedure a retina surgeon uses intense cold to freeze the location of the retinal tear. Like the laser photocoagulation procedure, the frozen area leaves a tiny scar the helps to weld the retina to the eye wall. The cryotherapy procedure typically causes minimal discomfort that can be alleviated with medication. (little to no discomfort) If the retinal detachment or tear has developed to a critical stage this procedure might not be applicable. Make sure to consult your retina specialist regarding the best retina repair options for you.

Scleral Buckle

A common form of retinal detachment repair is called a scleral buckle and has been used for over 30 years. In the scleral buckle procedure a surgical placement of a silicone band will be placed around the eye to help the retina become attached again. Although this band is placed around the outside of the eye it is not visible. For a more detailed explanation of the scleral buckle procedure one of our Georgia retinal detachment surgeons can provide a complete explanation.


Vitrectomy is a retinal detachment surgery where specialized instruments and techniques are used. This procedure involves such small instruments that in some instances it is performed without the use of stiches! It involves 3 small incisions into the white part (sclera) of the eye. One incision is for the infusion of fluid into the eye. The second incision is for a light and the third incision is for an instrument to cut the vitreous. The procedure involves removing the vitreous gel through very small incisions. After the vitreous gel is removed and the retina surgeon performs detailed work on the surface of the retina the eye can then be filled with a choice of several solutions : saline, air, gas,or silicone oil. This procedure is typically performed without using general anesthesia in our retina surgery center. The patient is awake, but the eye is asleep and painfree. The success of this surgical procedure depends upon various factors that should be discussed with your eye doctor. Many people that undergo this eye surgery do regain complete vision after surgery. If you would like more information regarding vitrectomy our retina physicians will be happy to provide you with a brochure of information provided by The American Aacademy Of Ophthalmology.

Pneumatic Retinopexy

The pneumatic retinopexy procedure may be a good option for some patients with minor retinal detachments requiring mininimally invasive techniques. Pneumatic retinopexy is performed in the office using local anesthesia. This procedure might only be appropriate in some cases of retinal detachment but is an option you may want to discuss with your retina specialists (eye doctor). During this process the retina surgeon injects a gas bubble inside the vitreous cavity of the eye. This gas bubble will push the detached retina against the back wall of the eye to ultimately seal the retinal tear. Patients may be required to maintain a certain head position (to be in certain positions) to aid in the sealing of the retina tear.

Atlanta Area Retinal Detachment Help:

If you have been told you have a family history of retinal detachments, or you have diabetes, we encourage regular eye examinations. Our Atlanta retina specialists are a progressive group of eye doctors dedicated to treating eye problems associated with the retina. If you are seeking experienced Georgia retina doctors please call us today to schedule an eye appointment. If you have warning signs of flashes and floaters it is important to immediately schedule a complete eye health examination with one of our Thomas Eye Group retina specialists. If a retinal tear is detected early enough it can be treated with a laser to seal the break before too much vitreous gel leaks through the retina.

Macular Degeneration

According to the Macular Degeneration Foundation, Macular Degeneration is the most frequent cause of legal blindness for patients aged 55 and above in the United States and is estimated to affect over 10 million Americans. This is a serious degenerative eye disease that requires immediate attention from a medical ophthalmologist.

Before you can start to learn about macular degeneration and why this disease can lead to blindness it is important to understand the parts of the eye. Here are some important aspects to understanding the retina:

  • The retina connects to the optic nerve which transmits images to the brain.
  • The retina is responsible for light sensing
  • The center of the retina is the macula
  • The macula is the most sensitive part of the retina
  • The macula is responsible for seeing extremely fine details

If the retina or macula have problems transmitting images through the optic nerve to the brain, blindness can result.

About Macular Degeneration:

Macular DegenerationMacular Degeneration, also called age related macular degeneration (ARMD), affects primarily the aging population and gradually destroys central vision. As noted above the central vision is critical for seeing fine details and necessary for performing daily tasks such as reading and driving. This degenerative eye disease causes no pain and typically develops over a long period of time. Patients may notice a blurring or distortion in their central vision. In other words, lines that should be straight may appear to have a bend in them.

Macular Degeneration Symptoms:

  • Colors are no longer vibrant and clear
  • Contrast (Light) sensitivity issues
  • Gradual inability to see objects in the center of the vision
  • Blurred central vision
  • Lack of ability to see details
  • Dark gray spots in center of vision
  • Distortion of straight lines

Macular Degeneration Risk Factors Review:

  • If you are overweight or have obesity problems you will be more at risk
  • If you have a family history you may be more at risk
  • Women have a higher risk of macular degeneration than men
  • Excessive sunlight exposure can lead to macular degeneration
  • Macular degeneration is higher among Caucasians
  • Diets high in fat can cause macular degeneration
  • The smoking of cigarettes can lead to macular degeneration

Understanding the Amsler Grid:

The Thomas Eye Group retina eye doctors will determine regular follow-up appointments to monitor (a) your macular degeneration. However, home monitoring can be performed (condition by) using an Amsler grid at least twice a week. This will help so that any changes in vision will be recognized as early as possible. The Thomas Eye Group retina eye doctors will provide any instructions necessary to use the Amsler grid.

Instructions for using the Amsler Grid:

  1. Patients will be instructed to look at the Amsler Grid.
  2. Patients will be asked to cover one eye and stare at the black dot in the middle of the grid.
  3. Do the straight lines appear wavy?
  4. If some of the lines are missing these may be signs of macular degeneration.

Types of Macular Degeneration

There are two forms of macular degeneration- dry and wet. Neither form tends to cause total blindness, but both can cause severe loss of central vision over time.

Dry Macular Degeneration:

This type of macular degeneration does not cause total blindness but typically worsens over time with (the) blurring of the vision and blind spots located in the central vision. Dry macular degeneration involves the presence of yellow deposits known as drussen spelled drusen in the macula. As these yellow spots grow in size and increase they will lead to a dimming effect or distortion of vision. In the advanced stage of dry macular degeneration, central vision is lost but total blindness may not occur.

Wet Macular Degeneration:

Wet Macular Degeneration affects much less of the total macular degeneration population. With wet macular degeneration blood vessels grow abnormally underneath the macula. These blood vessels leak blood and fluid into the retina, causing vision distortion. It is believed that the diseased retina stimulates the production of these new blood vessels in response to a decreased supply of nutrients and slow transport of wastes. Unfortunately, new blood vessels do not improve the health of the retina. Instead, they often leak blood or fluid into the retina.

For more information regarding wet macular degeneration feel free to visit the National Eye Institute website

Macular Degeneration Treatments:

Thomas Eye Group provides various treatment options for macular degeneration including

  • Avastin Injections
  • Lucentis Injections
  • Laser

Avastin (FDA approval 2004):

This drug was originally used for cancer patients but is now used to treat wet macular degeneration and works by inhibiting growth of abnormal blood vessels in the back of the eye.

The objective of the Avastin is ultimately to prevent further vision loss. Some patients have reported some regained vision but the medication should not be expected to restore vision that has already been lost due to macular degeneration.

Avastin and Lucentis injections are referred to as intravitreal injections. This implies that the injection is placed directly into the vitreous of the eye. After your eyes have been treated with topical eye drops and 4% Lidocaine, Betadine may be used around the eyelids to prevent infections. Once the lid speculum is in place the injection can begin. After the injection the eye doctor will ask you if you can see his or her hands or light. Your eye doctor may also measure your intraocular eye pressure before you leave the office. These injections will need to be repeated every four to five to six weeks.

Side effects of intravitreal injections may include:

  • Serious eye infection that may include eye pain, light sensitivity, vision changes.
  • Increased eye pressure
  • Retinal detachment
  • Vitreous floaters

Avastin FDA Information

Clinical studies of Avastin injections indicate that when given to patients who have evidence of new blood vessel formation monthly over 90% of patients will maintain their vision.

Lucentis Injections
Atlanta Lucentis Injections

Lucentis is a prescription medication for the treatment of patients with wet macular degeneration. As mentioned earlier in on this page wet macular degeneration involves the leaking of blood vessels onto the retina. After receiving FDA approval in June of 2006 Lucentis has become a guiding light source for patients once facing blindness.

Prior to receiving your Lucentis injection your eye will be prepped and cleaned in order to prevent any type of infection. Our retina specialists will then numb your eye to limit any discomfort. Patients do report slight pressure on the eye. Once the injection has passed the pressure will subside.

Lucentis Facts (courtesy of Genentech USA):

  • It is FDA approved for wet ARMD and was developed specifically for use in the eye
  • Efficacy and safety of LUCENTIS was tested in clinical studies of more than 800 people over 2 years
  • In clinical studies, patients treated monthly for up to 2 years saw their vision stabilize or improve. In fact, 9 out of 10 people saw their vision stabilize (which means they lost fewer than 15 letters on the eye chart), and up to 4 out of 10 people saw a 3-line gain on the eye chart (which means they could see an additional 15 letters)

What your retina eye doctor will discuss with you.

The eye doctors at Thomas Eye Group will discuss with you a selected treatment program, which typically varies for each patient. Our doctors will review any associated benefits and risks and will completely educate you on this process before you decide to proceed.

The Prevention of Macular Degeneration:

If you have a family history of macular degeneration or are a cigarette smoker you may choose to make some lifestyle changes that could help prevent macular degeneration in the future. Listed below are a few tips for macular degeneration prevention.

  • Regular exercise
  • Keep your weight under control
  • Monitor your blood pressure
  • Avoid too much sun and UV exposure
  • Get regular eye exams after the age of 40
  • Do not smoke

For more information regarding macular degeneration feel free to visit the National Eye Institute website

Diabetic Retinopathy

According to the National Eye Institute, it is estimated that nearly 5.4 million Americans, ages 18 and over currently have diabetic retinopathy. This eye disease causes over 8000 cases of new blindness annually, and is the primary cause of blindness for people ages 25 to 74 (Valero and Drouilhet, 2001).

Every patient with diabetes needs a dilated eye exam at least once a year.

What is diabetic retinopathy?

Diabetic RetinopathyDiabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. In the majority of diabetic retinopathy cases, blindness is completely preventable. Patients will need to work closely with their Thomas Eye Group diabetic retina eye doctors to monitor and treat this disease. The use of medications and daily blood sugar monitoring can make a major impact on preventing or containing any worsening of diabetic retinopathy.

The retina is the like the film in a camera; the light sensing film on the inside, back of the eye that captures the images. In the diabetic, sugar (glucose) builds up within blood vessels in the retina and tissues of the body causing it to attach to the proteins in the wall. This alters the vessel’s normal structure and functioning. The vessels eventually get blocked and leak fluid. When they cannot deliver an adequate amount of blood supply to the eye, the eye can generate abnormal new blood vessels. Early diabetic retinopathy usually has no symptoms. However, worsening diabetic retinopathy can lead to visual loss and blindness.

The stages of diabetic retinopathy are divided into two categories, nonproliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy.

Nonproliferative Retinopathy

This is the first and earliest stage of diabetic retinopathy. NPDR (non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy) occurs when the small blood vessels of the retina start to leak fluid or bleed. This activity will lead to the formation of deposits called exudates. Once these blood vessels start to leak, swelling within the central part of the retina can occur. When the leakage of these blood vessels causes swelling of the central vision, this is referred to as macular edema. When macular edema sets in, the blood vessels can become blocked. This stage of diabetic retinopathy is common when a person develops diabetes. Most diabetics have some grade of NPDR. It is imperative to maintain regular eye examinations with the retina specialists at Thomas Eye Group to monitor and treat NPDR.

Proliferative Retinopathy

When new vessels start to grow as a result of the existing vessels becoming blocked, this marks the beginning of the next stage of diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy. This level of diabetic retinopathy is the most severe and dangerous for the diabetic patient. These new abnormal blood vessels can grow on the retina, optic nerve, iris or into the vitreous gel inside the eye, and tend to grow poorly and are very fragile. The damage that these blood vessels bring to retina can be catastrophic and include hemorrhages on the retina, scar tissues build up, and possible retina detachment. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy can be present without any visual symptoms.

Diabetic Retinopathy Symptoms

  • If you are a diabetic patient, it is suggested by the Thomas Eye Group that you have yearly dilated eye exams (regular eye exams to look for symptoms. Diabetic retinopathy does not really have any initial warning signs. )
  • Retinal swelling may cause blurred vision and distortion.
  • Objects may look smaller or larger than normal
  • Floaters may appear due to the bleeding of the blood vessels.

*If proliferative diabetic retinopathy is left untreated blindness can occur. The best alternative to fighting PDR is early detection so that you and your eye doctor can begin to control this development.

Early detection saves vision!
How does the Thomas Eye Group detect diabetic retinopathy?

The doctors at Thomas Eye Group will detect diabetic retinopathy through regular eye exams with their diabetic patients. In the earliest stages of diabetes, eye exams once or twice a year may be acceptable. The doctors will be specificly looking for the leaking blood vessels that can lead to more advanced levels of this eye disease. A dilated eye exam will be performed by your eye doctor and retinal photographic equipment may be used.

Diabetic retinopathy treatments:

  • Laser treatments - These laser treatments are also known as photocoagulation. The laser is uses controlled bursts to seal leaking blood vessels, destroy abnormal blood vessels, seal retinal tears
  • Intraocular corticosteroids – Many studies have been conducted recently with these types of injections. They may reduce retinal swelling and improve visual acuity in patients with diabetic macular edema.
  • Intravitreal Avastin – Avastin has been previously mentioned regarding macular degeneration treatments, but Avastin may also be used in cases of diabetic retinopathy. A variety of retina conditions can be treated with intravitreal Avastin including, proliferative and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, macular edema, and retinal vein occlusions. The objective of the Avastin is ultimately to prevent further vision loss. Some patients have reported some regained vision but the medication should not be expected to restore vision that has already been lost due to macular degeneration.
  • Vitrectomy - A vitrectomy may be performed to clear blood and debris from the eye, to remove scar tissue, or to alleviate traction on the retina. The Vitrectomy actually removes vitreous gel from the eye through a small incision. Vitrectomy allows the retina to flatten. Depending on the severity of the diabetic retinopathy, gas, air, or silicone oil might be placed in the eye to replace the vitreous fluid that was removed. This gas or air helps smooth out the retina and prevent retinal detachment.

Learning to live with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy Essential nutrition tips for Atlanta diabetic retinopathy patients

If you are diabetic patient you have most likely had some kind of discussion with your primary care doctor regarding diet. The nutrition of the food you eat becomes critical for maintaining proper blood sugar levels. Please refer to this list below for diabetic nutrition tips:

  • Drink water (8 glasses per day)
  • Reduce artificial fats
  • Juice and vegetables
  • Increase fiber intake
  • Reduce caffeine or refined sugar

The doctors at Thomas Eye Group would like all diabetic patients to know that we care and hope that we can provide the best care for their eyes. Most people who are diagnosed with diabetes are not told of the dangers related to the eyes, but instead are told about other problems like strokes, heart attacks and kidney disease. Our eye doctors want you to know that early detection can save your vision and we are here to help in any way possible. We hope that you have found our information on diabetic retinopathy useful. For diabetic eye examinations please contact one of our multiple Atlanta area locations.

Our Retina Specialists

Our retina specialists are board-certified in ophthalmology and fellowship-trained as specialists in retina/vitreous medicine and surgery.  Both have also been recognized throughout their careers, by colleagues and patients, for compassionate patient care and surgical skill.

Dr. Paul L Kaufman, M.D.

Dr. Jessica D. McCluskey, M.D.


Floaters may appear as small specks or dark shadows. These specks can actually move or float around in the visual field. Most people have some level of floaters and normally do not notice them until they become very obvious. Sometimes floaters can be seen when you stare up at the sky and they may appear as curvy lines or small specks.

This condition actually develops from changes in the back of the eye also known as the vitreous cavity. In typical cases floaters are part of the aging process.


  • Sensitivity to bright lights
  • Specks floating in the central vision

Flashes and floaters:

In most cases flashes and floaters are caused by age-related changes in the back of the eyes and furthermore changes in the vitreous fluid (gel material). The vitreous fluid gradually becomes more viscous or watery overtime. What happens after the age of 30 or so is that the vitreous might be watery enough to absorb material and is where the floaters can develop. These clumps of material floating inside the eye can cast shadows on the retina and is why people see floating spots.

Diagnosing flashes and floaters:

At Thomas Eye Group in Atlanta, Georgia a very comprehensive eye examination can be conducted to determine if this is a serious issue or a relatively harmless condition. We will use very specialized diagnostic equipment to exam a persons eyes and look for potential issues related to the retina.

Seriousness of Floaters

Floaters can be a serious problem, however; in most cases the problems are not serious. Please consult our eye doctor directly before trying to diagnose the severity of this condition. If you are seeking an Atlanta flashes and floaters eye care physician please complete our website contact form and we can arrange an appointment.

Macular EdemaMacular Edema is also called Cystoid Macular Edema or (CME). Macular Edema sets in when blood vessels leak into the eye and form cysts and swelling that obstruct central vision. CME can best be seen from a diagnostic vision test called fluorecein angiography or optical coherence tomography.

Causes of Macular Edema

  • Cataract surgery or repair of retina detachment
  • Macular degeneration
  • Medication side effects
  • Diabetes
  • Blocked or clogged veins of the retina
  • Eye injuries

Diagnosing Macular Edema

During routine dilated eye exams our eye doctors may detect central swelling. Depending on the amount of fluid that has leaked these spots may be easy or hard to detect. A fluorescein angiography procedure is conducted where sodium fluorescien dye is injected into an arm or hand and then retina photographs are taken. If there are any abnormalities on the retina, the dye will usually reveal them by leaking, staining or by its inability to get through blocked blood vessels.

Macular Edema Treatments

The eye doctors at Thomas Eye Group will provide expert treatment options to deal with macular edema. The treatment type will depend on the severity and progression of the macular edema. Some of the treatment options include:

  • Avastin Injections – Which make blood vessels less leaky and decreases macular edema.
  • Ocular steroid injections – Used to stabilize the retinal barrier and decrease vascular growth within the eye.
  • Anti-inflammatory eye drops (NON-STEROID BASED)-Used to reduce the imflammation of the retina.
  • Vitrectomy Surgery: Removes vitreous gel and membranes to allow the retina to flatten again.

Retinitis Pigmentosa Retinitis Pigmentosa refers to a group of inherited eye diseases causing the degradation of the retina. As we have discussed throughout the retina section of this website, the retina is a critical component of the eye responsible for interpreting images and transmitting them onto the brain. When retinitis pigmentosa develops the cells, which are called rods and cones, die. The loss of visual fields is the indicator for retinitis pigmentosa and begins as a ring like distortion in the mid-periphery. Throughout the course of this degenerative eye disease the central vision is also lost and the result is tunnel vision. As a result of this progression patients are told not to drive automobiles even in the early stages.

There is little known about what causes Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), other than the fact that the disease is inherited and can be passed even if only one parent has the disease. Retinitis Pigmentosa is a rare condition affecting about 1 in 4,000 people in the United States. (source: NY Times)


  • Decreased vision at night or in low light
  • Loss of side (peripheral) vision
  • Loss of central vision (in advanced cases)

Retinitis Pigmentosa Treatment:

Many people are surprised to learn that there are no viable treatment options for retinitis pigmentosa. It is suggested to wear ultra-violet light protecting sunglasses to help preserve vision. There are currently several organizations working on treatment studies that are suggesting that the use of antioxidants may also slow the disease from getting worse.

Sources: The Juliette Foundation, Robert Melendez, MD,

Our Retina Specialists

Our retina specialists are board-certified in ophthalmology and fellowship-trained as specialists in retina/vitreous medicine and surgery.  Both have also been recognized throughout their careers, by colleagues and patients, for compassionate patient care and surgical skill.

Dr. Paul L Kaufman, M.D.

Dr. Jessica D. McCluskey, M.D.

CareCredit Financing

Your Vision Solutions

The available services at Thomas Eye Group range from comprehensive eye exams to specialty services in LASIK, retinal and corneal disorders, glaucoma, and plastic surgery. To correct vision problems, our doctors are trained in the most current refractive surgery techniques. We also offer contact lenses and glasses to those who prefer a traditional solution.

Learn More

Kids Vision

At Thomas Eye Group, we offer comprehensive eye care to children—specialty care especially for kids! As the largest pediatric eye care practice in the Southeast; we offer a complete scope of preventive and corrective eye care for children. From the detection and treatment of eye disorders to eye surgery, we also treat disorders of eye alignment in adults including double vision..

Learn More

Patient Stories

"To say that I am pleased with the outcome of my surgery is an understatement. What a difference this surgery has made in my life! It is so great to be able to read street signs - even the green ones - at night. Thank you so much!"
- Sally Stebbins

"Everyone the North Fulton office of Thomas Eye Group is so helpful. They feel like a part of my family now!"
- Paige Morris

Learn More

Meet Our Doctors

At Thomas Eye Group Atlanta, our board-certified ophthalmologists and optometrists have decades of combined experience in eye care. We work together as a team to bring you specialized, state-of-the-art care from caring professionals.

Our team of doctors is comprised of ophthalmologists, optometrists, and skilled support staff. Within our group of ophthalmologists, we have several sub-specialists, including LASIK, glaucoma, retina, and plastic surgery or Oculoplastics. At six locations throughout the greater Atlanta area, our group provides services ranging from comprehensive eye examinations and contact lens care to sophisticated microsurgery for cataracts, cornea and retinal disease, and refractive surgery, including LASIK.

Learn More